Views: 77 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-09-27 Origin: Site
Because of its low drug resistance, plant extracts are not prone to additive residues and certain toxic side effects, and have extremely high food safety.
In recent years, the research and development of functional food and beverages using plant extracts as raw materials has become a research focus in various countries.
Now that the new type of coronavirus is ravaging Europe and the United States, foreign consumers are buying botanicals to fight off the flu.
Plant extracts are substances derived from plants (such as herbs, spices, essential oils, etc.), extracted or processed using appropriate solvents or methods (such as concentration, distillation, extraction, separation, and drying).
How to classify plant extracts?
According to different properties, it can be divided into vegetable oil, extract, powder, lens, etc.; according to function, it can be divided into growth promoter, immunomodulator, antioxidant, flavoring agent, deodorant, antifungal agent, product quality improver, etc. According to the different components of the extract, it is divided into alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids and other compounds.
(1) Alkaloids, namely plant alkaloids, are important effective ingredients in Chinese herbal medicines, such as the coccine in Coptis and ephedrine in Ephedra.
(2) Flavonoids have biological activities such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Common flavonoids include propolis, soybean isoflavones, anthocyanins, tea polyphenols, etc.
(3) Polysaccharides have the effects of lowering serum cholesterol, anti-cancer and anti-cancer, and regulating immunity, such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide, lentinan, algae polysaccharide and so on.
(4) Glycosides are substances combined with sugars, phenols and flavonoids. Different types of aglycones have different physiological activities and have various functions.
(5) Volatile oils, also known as essential oils, are oily liquids with aroma and volatility. Common volatile oils include peppermint oil, rose essential oil, and garlic oil.
(6) Organic acids such as citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, etc. are the most effective substitutes for antibiotics, which can regulate the intestinal flora.
At present, my country has no unified regulations for the use of plant extracts as food materials, and some substances are regulated in different forms.
According to GB2760 "Rules for the Use of Food Additives", some plant extracts can be used as food additives. According to their functions, they can be divided into:
(1) Antioxidants: rosemary extract, tea polyphenols, licorice antioxidants, etc.;
(2) Natural flavors: clove bud tincture, bay leaf extract, ginger extract, licorice extract, aloe extract, etc.;
(3) Coloring agents: beet red, caramel color, curcumin, chili red, orange yellow, etc.;
(4) Sweeteners: thaumatin, stevioside, mogroside and so on.