Views:6 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-09-09 Origin:Site
Traditional Chinese veterinary medicine (Chinese herbal medicine) has the advantages of wide range of functions, two-way regulation, few side effects, low residue, no drug resistance, etc. It also has the characteristics of wide resources, easy planting and harvesting, simple production, low cost, and long-lasting effect. It is a tradition in my country. A gem of medical cultural heritage. As my country’s economy has entered a new period of development, especially after my country’s accession to the WTO and the implementation of GMP management for veterinary drugs, domestic and foreign drugs, especially edible animal drugs, are shifting to the development direction of low-toxicity, no-residue, and high-efficiency drugs.
Due to the advantages of Chinese veterinary drugs, the development of Chinese veterinary drugs is facing an unprecedented opportunity. Vigorously researching and developing Chinese veterinary drugs and Chinese veterinary drug feed additives is an important way to improve the international competitiveness of my country's veterinary drug products, and it is also an important way for the development of my country's veterinary drug industry. Important areas.
1. The production of pollution-free animal products and green animal products calls for natural Chinese veterinary medicine and Chinese veterinary medicine feed additives
In order to enable people to eat safe food and protect their health, my country has launched the "Pollution-Free Food Action Plan."
By 2010, the units and individuals involved in the production and processing of livestock products must pass the certification of pollution-free livestock products in order to gain access to the sales market. At present, various provinces and cities across the country have successively implemented plans for green livestock and poultry products. Promulgated production specifications for pollution-free animal products and green animal products, and guidelines for the use of veterinary drugs. The research and development of Chinese veterinary drugs and feed additives of Chinese veterinary drugs is precisely adapted to the national policy. In addition, it is also the need of an export-oriented strategy for animal products, opening up the international market, and participating in international market competition.
In recent years, many countries have adopted stricter technical measures to restrict the entry of products from other countries into their own markets. The usual measure in the animal husbandry industry is to implement "green barriers", that is, to use the import of livestock products as an excuse for consumer safety, and to set up barriers to keep foreign livestock products out of the country. At present, the "green barrier" measures implemented in some countries have formed an export barrier for my country's livestock and poultry products, and have become an important factor restricting the development of my country's animal husbandry.
Some poultry products in my country have been rejected, detained, terminated contracts and even sealed customs because technical indicators such as pathogens and veterinary drug residues exceed the control indicators of the European Union and major importing countries such as Japan. Since December 1998, the European Union has banned the use of spiramycin, bacitracin zinc, virginiamycin and tylosin in chicken production, while vigorously developing natural medicines, immunomodulators and other green natural plants as alternatives Products are promoted in breeding production.
Chinese veterinary drugs in my country have become the first choice for alternative chemical drugs and antibacterial drugs due to their profound theoretical foundation and the characteristics of low toxicity, no drug residues, and no drug resistance. Chinese herbal medicine and its additives have the following remarkable characteristics.
1.1 The naturalness is taken from the naturalness, and the natural structure and activity are maintained through natural processing. At the same time, they are a kind of food with special functions, natural products digested and absorbed by humans and animals.
1.2 Versatility Each Chinese medicine is an organic complex with multiple structural components (some containing dozens to hundreds of components), which can produce multiple effects, and each component can have a compound effect, such as hawthorn. More than 70 kinds of ingredients can help digestion and absorption, cure liver diseases, strengthen the heart, and replenish blood.
1.3 Non-residual toxicity Chinese herbal medicine is a kind of food with special effects and natural organic matter that has been screened and retained by humans and animals for a long time. Humans and animals have enzymes that make them catabolize, so they can be absorbed, decomposed, and excreted normally. "It is a three-point poison" Chinese medicine is no exception, but compared with western medicine, Chinese medicine has lower toxicity and is relatively safe. In addition, Chinese herbal medicine can also be naturally processed to detoxify, and matched with prescriptions, and detoxified by killing and fearing each other.
1.4 It will not cause microorganisms to produce parasites such as drug-resistant bacteria and viruses. They are a class of low-level organisms with simple structures, and they are also the most adaptable organisms in nature. They have powerful variant structures and metabolic methods. However, most of the antimicrobial chemicals used today have a single structure and pathway of action, and are within the ability of microbes to mutate. Therefore, after multiple exposures, microbes develop resistance, and the resistance genes are inherited to produce new resistance. The population makes human beings difficult to prevent and control diseases. Chinese herbal medicine uses multi-function and modulates all anti-disease factors of the body, namely non-specific immune factors (leukocyte phagocytosis, lysosome, enzyme, bactericidin, interferon, complement, etc.) to kill microorganisms in all directions, making them unable to adapt to mutations , It can not produce resistance. The above-mentioned non-specific immune effects of Chinese herbal medicines suggest that when screening the antimicrobial effects of Chinese medicines, in vitro antimicrobial effects cannot be used as the only indicator of judgment.
1.5 Two-way regulation and adaptation. Two-way regulation refers to the effect that a single traditional Chinese medicine can adjust the different states of the same organs (physiology and pathology, excitement and inhibition), that is, it can be adjusted to a normal state when it is hyperactive, and it can be adjusted to a normal state. The two-way regulating effect of enhancing its function to normal state when inhibited. For example, Angelica sinensis contains two components that excite and inhibit uterine muscles, which can regulate uterine muscles in both directions. In addition, Ophiopogon japonicus, Shengdi, Scrophulariaceae, etc. all have a two-way regulating effect.
Adaptation effect refers to the role of traditional Chinese medicine that can adjust the physiological dysfunction of animals in harsh environments, and make them move in the direction that is beneficial to the body and continuously enhance the adaptive ability, such as acanthopanax senticosus, ginseng, astragalus, codonopsis , Licorice, etc. have the effect of adaptation. They can be used to prevent the effects of stress and prevent and treat stress syndromes.
1.6 Hormone-like action Hormone is a kind of trace biologically active substance that adjusts the balance of animals. In animal husbandry production, exogenous hormones have been used to increase fecundity and increase weight to promote fattening, and good results have been achieved. However, it has been eliminated or banned because of its residual toxic and side effects and affecting the human health of eating such animal products. Chinese herbal medicine itself is not a hormone, but it can play a hormone-like effect and has no residual toxic side effects of exogenous hormones. Therefore, it is highly valued. Chinese herbal medicines with hormone-like effects, such as licorice, xiangfu, cnidia, epimedium, evodia, Buffalo horn, medlar, etc.
2. The R&D and application of Chinese veterinary medicine and Chinese veterinary medicine feed additives should be oriented to the new changes in the structural adjustment of livestock and poultry and the new characteristics of the epidemic of livestock and poultry diseases
The animal husbandry industry is developing in the direction of intensive and large-scale. The breeds of livestock and poultry are constantly increasing, and the types, scope and causes of livestock and poultry diseases have also changed greatly. In particular, the current epidemic is characterized by atypical viral diseases and various viruses. There are more and more diseases, chronic diseases, and foreign diseases that are caused by bacteria, bacteria and bacteria mixed infections and secondary infections, causing great losses to the animal husbandry. In this case, chemical, antibiotics and other preventive drugs are added in large quantities or even abused. The resulting increase in pathogen resistance, the result is that the drug residues are seriously exceeding the standard, which does not meet the national quality requirements for pollution-free animal products and export animal products.
The advantages of Chinese veterinary drugs are low toxicity, no drug residues, and no drug resistance. The holistic thought given when medication emphasizes the treatment based on syndrome differentiation, strengthening the righteousness and eliminating evils, balancing Yin and Yang, focusing on curing the root cause, and the development trend of its application:
2.1 Chinese herbal medicine is used for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases in livestock and poultry. Chinese herbal medicine is generally used to clear away heat, detoxify, strengthen the body and eliminate evils. Chinese herbal medicines containing antiviral active factors such as Daqingye, Banlangen, honeysuckle, forsythia, shegan, burdock seed, etc. Coptis, Andrographis, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Cork, Polygonum cuspidatum, Wild Chrysanthemum, Indigo Naturalis, Parsnip, Dandelion, Houttuynia cordata, etc. are used to clear away heat and detoxify. It is combined with Chinese herbal medicines such as Epimedium, Codonopsis, Astragalus, Atractylodes, Atractylodes, Yam, etc. Licorice, Poria, Angelica, Acanthopanax senticosus, etc. to strengthen vitality and blood. There are also a few Chinese herbal medicines, such as Astragalus, which can both anti-virus and improve the immunity of the body. It enhances the phagocytic activity of mononuclear macrophages, releases immunologically active substances to somatic cells and natural killer cells, and induces interferons and interleukins. It has a variety of physiological activities.
2.2 Chinese herbal medicine is used to prevent and control bacterial diseases of livestock and poultry. On the one hand, Chinese herbal medicine contains antibacterial substances such as berberine, allicin, houttuyfonate and other phytoncide to act on microorganisms. On the other hand, it kills microorganisms by mobilizing the body and the immune system. Hu Gongzheng and others used Chinese herbal medicine Sophora flavescens, Dandelion, Andrographis paniculata to treat chicks artificially infected with E. coli with 0.75% mixture. The average cure rate was 95.3%, and the infection without drugs was 26.7%. Wang Junhong and other studies have shown that Codonopsis pilosula has obvious inhibitory or killing effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Leptospira. Gao Weiwei and other studies have shown that the water extract and alcohol extract of Forsythia suspensa, the alcohol extract of Sophora flavescens, and the water extract of Pulsatilla have a strong inhibitory effect on Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella typhimurium.
2.3 Chinese herbal medicines are used to prevent and treat parasitic diseases of livestock and poultry. Many Chinese herbal medicines have anti-parasitic effects, especially the application of Chinese herbal medicines to control coccidiosis, which is also a major development direction to be considered in the future. At present, coccidiosis, like viral diseases, has become another scourge of the aquaculture industry. People use Chinese herbal medicine to prevent and treat coccidiosis, which has shown a certain effect and good momentum. Some compound preparations are more effective than diclazuril, and, like other diseases such as viral diseases, can prevent and cure veterinary drug residues and drug resistance, so they also have good development prospects.
2.4 Chinese herbal medicines are used in livestock and poultry immunomodulators and immune adjuvants. Modern research shows that Chinese herbal medicines can regulate the body's nerves, body fluids, and cellular molecular levels in all directions, thereby playing a regulatory role. The righteousness of Chinese veterinary medicine is actually the body's immune function. Since many Chinese medicines and prescriptions contain glycosides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, organic sugars, volatile oils and other immunologically active substances, it can activate the body's cellular and humoral immune system, improve the body's disease resistance, and achieve the purpose of preventing and treating diseases. Recipes that have been proven to have this function include strengthening the body and strengthening the body, nourishing yang, nourishing yin, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, clearing heat and detoxification, astringent, and hemostasis. Among these prescriptions, some can promote the development of immune organs, some can enhance the activity of immune cells, and some can regulate the body's cellular immune function and humoral immune function.
Immune adjuvants, also known as immune enhancers, are substances that non-specifically change or enhance the body's specific immune response to the antigen or antigens injected into the animal body at the same time. It is often accompanied by a variety of vaccine effects, which can reduce the production cost of livestock and poultry vaccines and improve the protection of vaccines.
At present, the research on Chinese herbal medicine immune adjuvants at home and abroad has just started, and some progress has been made. For example, some people in China use astragalus polysaccharide to enhance the serum antibody titer of Marek's vaccine; use corn pollen polysaccharide to enhance the immunity of swine fever attenuated vaccine; Liaoning Yikang Biological Products Factory uses Chinese herbal medicine to make vaccine adjuvants to study the immunity to E. coli vaccine Effect, the test results show that the immune effect of Chinese herbal medicine adjuvant chicken E. coli is better than the vaccine effect of oil and aluminum gel adjuvant. Solvay of the United States used aloe extract acetylmannan as an adjuvant for chicken Marek vaccine, showing a good adjuvant effect. Therefore, Chinese herbal immune enhancers have become a major trend in future research and development.
2.5 Chinese herbal medicine used in livestock and poultry feed additives. Chinese herbal medicine feed additives are developed in the production of modern and intensive aquaculture, taking advantage of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent diseases and health care, promote production performance, and have low toxic and side effects.
In recent years, its research and application have received extensive attention, and great progress has been made. From livestock and poultry, aquatic products to bees and silkworms and other animals, from single prescriptions to compound prescriptions, from gaining weight and accelerating growth to preventing and controlling various diseases. There are developments in all aspects. In China, sugar terpenin feed additives have the functions of enhancing animal immunity, antibacterial and antiviral functions. In foreign countries, volatile oil extracted from oregano grass is used to prepare oregano oil premix, which has antibacterial and antidiarrheal effects on pigs, chickens and other livestock and poultry. Promote growth.
Not long ago, a commercial pig heat stress Chinese herbal medicine additive was developed in China, which has the functions of appetizing and strengthening the spleen, clearing away heat and detoxifying, and reducing heat and summer heat. Adding to the diet can reduce the impact of high humidity and heat on pig performance. Experiments show that the additive in summer can increase the weight of the experimental pigs by 8.7% and the feed utilization rate by 12.4%. China is the first country to use Chinese herbal medicine in livestock and poultry production. We have precious Chinese veterinary theories and abundant Chinese herbal medicine resources. We should seize the opportunity and make full use of our resources and technological advantages to develop animal husbandry with Chinese characteristics.
2.6 Chinese herbal medicine for dogs and cats and aquaculture With the development of the pet industry, pet hospitals have emerged all over the country, and the demand for medicines mainly for dogs and cats will also increase. Foreign countries have accounted for 34% of animal medicine. While the vast majority of dog and cat medicines in my country are western medicines for humans, there are very few Chinese medicines used clinically. There is no animal prescription for dogs and cats. The veterinary medicine market can see Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, Bupleurum injection, and Houttuynia cordata injection. Liquid and other traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicine preparations for dogs and cats have a lot of room for development, and the prospects are promising.
Aquaculture medicine started late and its management is weak, but its development space is large, and it accounts for a lot of shares in the veterinary medicine market. However, there are few Chinese herbal medicines, which is also the direction of Chinese herbal medicine research and development.
3. The research and development of Chinese veterinary medicine and compound preparations of Chinese and Western veterinary medicines should be oriented towards the development of simple, practical and advanced dosage forms for the administration of livestock and poultry groups.
With the rapid rise of large-scale and intensive aquaculture, livestock and poultry diseases are increasing in number and becoming more and more difficult to deal with in terms of complexity. The traditional Chinese veterinary medicine preparations and water decoctions alone are obviously not good enough. To adapt to the requirements of the breeding industry to overcome livestock and poultry diseases,
At present, most Chinese veterinary drug companies in China still stay at the traditional production level of decoction or crushing and mixing, and their dosage forms are mostly powders, suspensions, and drinking water. Some dosage forms are single and rough, with large dosages, and inconvenient to take; The clinical effects of the preparations of different production batches are very different, and the curative effect is difficult to be stable; some long-term storage has mildew, deterioration, delamination, flocculation and discoloration. Quality control mostly takes appearance or main ingredient content as indicators, and it is difficult to guarantee its internal quality.
In short, the development of Chinese veterinary drugs is still at a relatively low level as a whole, and it cannot be said that the development of new veterinary drugs requires "safe, effective, controllable and stable". These are the core issues to be solved in the modernization of Chinese veterinary drugs. Once these problems are properly resolved, the future is boundless. Some long-acting sustained-release preparations and controlled-release preparations are the most ideal dosage forms for the control of parasitic diseases. In addition, aerosols and transdermal agents that are convenient for large-scale administration are suitable for group administration and will definitely be favored by intensive farmers. welcome. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in ultra-micronized drugs is suitable for various formulations such as controlled release agents, inhalants, nasal sprays, and implantable formulations, which is also the direction of research and development.